Manobal Klinik

Here at “Manobal Klinik” full attention is paid on the patients who are suffering form different kind of Mental Problems.

Specialty Clinics:

Anti smoking Klinik, Memory Klinik, Bipolar Klinik, Psycho Diagnostic Services, Counseling Services (Cognitive behavior therapy), Child Psychological & Psychiatric Services, Marriage Counseling.


We are specialize in psychiatry and are certified in treating mental disorders.
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full attention is paid on the patients who are suffering form different kind of Mental Problems.
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Psychiatric assessment typically starts with a mental status examination and the compilation of a case history.
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Memory Klinik » Alzheimer's Disease

What is Alzheimer's Disease?

Alzheimer's is a degenerative disease that attacks the brain & resluts in impaired memory, thinking & behavior. Alzheimer's is one of the most common causes of the loss of mental function khnown as dementia.

What is Dementia?
Dementia is a loss of intellectual function (thinking, remembering & reasoning) so severe that it interferes with an individual's daily functioning & eventually results in death.

What causes Alzheimer's Disease?
Alzheimer's disease has no known single cause. Most scientists agree that the disease can be caused by several factors. Usually age & family history are identified as potential risk factors. Some environmental factors are also being studied as possible causes.

What are the first signs/symptoms of AD that a person may exhibit?
The classic sign of early Alzheimer's disease in gradual loss of short-term memory. Mood & personality changes may also occur. Agitation, problems with memory, and poor judgment may cause unusual behavior. These symptoms vary from one person to the next. Symptoms appear gradually in persons with Alzheimer's disease and the rate at which the disease progresses varies. If any of these signs are prevalent in any of your loved ones, please seek a physician's assistance as soon as possible.

This is a listing of the typical warning signs:
Recent memory loss that affects job skills.
Difficulty performing familiar tasks.
Language problems. Sentences can become incomphrehensible.
Time & place disorientation.
Loss of judgment.
Problems with abstract thinking. Forget what numbers are for and how to use them.
Misplacing things.
Changes in mood or behavior. From calm to tears to rage-for no apparent reason.
Changes in personality.
Loss of initiative.

How is the disease diagnosed?
There is no single, comphrehensive diagnostic test for Alzheimer's disease. Instead, physicians and other health care specialists rule out other conditions through the process of elimination. Physical, psychological, and neurological exams are usually conducted and a thorough medical history taken. A diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease can be obtained through evaluation with approximately 90% accuracy. The only way to confirm a diagnosis definitively is through autopsy. A CT scan or MRI can also rule out other disorders that might be mistaken for Alzheimer's .

What to expact concerning the early warning signs of Alzheimer's Disease?
A clinical assessment for Alzheimer's typically begins with a consultation with a doctor, often a family physician or perhaps a neurologist or a psychiatrist. Next comes a complete medical history to see if a condition other than Alzheimer's -such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, or major depression-is causing the observed problems.

Part of this process involves several standard laboratory tests:
A complete blood count (CBC)
A blood chemistry panel
Tests for syphilis and HIV infection
A computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

After the doctor has ruled out other possible diagnosis, he or she conducts a structured interview with person's family or friends to assess the degree of the person's cognitive deterioration. The following questions come from a recent study that correlated well with other diagnostic evaluations for Alzheimer's disease.

What was the first problem you noticed with the affected individual?
Have you ever noticed memory problem? If so, when did you first notice this? And once it started, was the problem always present, or did it happens every now and then?
Have you ever noticed language problems? if so.....
Have you ever noticed trouble knowing the date? If so......
Have you ever noticed personality changes? If so.....
Have you ever noticed behavior problems? If so.....

Next comes an interview with the affected individual to assess cogorne doctitive competence. The doctor might test recent and long-term memory by asking:

What day is it today? Who is the President?

Recall tests are also popular. The doctor lists familiar objects and then asks the person to repeat them.

Following this informal cogntive-function test, a vrief 11-question test asks a variety of questions: the year, season, date, day, month; the person's state, country, and town of residence. If a complete clinical assessment points to Alzheimer's disease, then it's wise to have a physician-typically a neurologist who specializes in dementing illnesses-repeat the entire panel of diagnostic tests.

Is it hereditary? Does it run in families?
The evidence is not clear. Some forms of Alzheimer's disease appear to be inherited. However, the majority of Alzheimer's disease cases do not follow clear genetic patterns. It is rare when members of the same family are diagnosed with Alzheimer's . An exception is the early onset of Alzheimer's. This is a form of disease that usually affects middle-aged members of the same family. The most common osituation is when one member of a family is diagnosed with Alzheimer's late in life.

What are the common ages of a person diagonsed with AD? Does it occur in young adults?
According to the Alzheimer's Association, only 10% of people over the age of 65 get Alzheimer's Disease. Even so, half of that 10% are 85 or order. It is rare for people below 65 to get Alzheimer's Disease.

How does AD progress?
The disease causes the formation of abnormal structures in the brain called plaques & tangles. The accumulation of plaques & tangles reduces the nerve cell connections.

The areas of the brain responsible for short-term memory tend to be the first ones to be affected. As it progresses, other arears of the brain responsible for other intellectual & physical activity are affected.

AD affects people in different ways, what makes it hard to predict how an individual's disease will progress. Even when medical professionals refer to early, middle & late stage of the disease it is still difficult to predict specific behaviors & how long they will last.

The brain functioning of an Alzheimer's patient decreases as the duisease progresses into the latter stages. With effective treatment and a nourishing environment, some Alzheimer's patients live as many as 20 years after the disease is diagnosed.

What is the duration of the disease?
Alzheimer's disease is a gradual dsiease process that typically affects the elderly population, althought individuals in 40-50 age range may be diagnosed. The onset of deficits is agradual and continuning process. The individual usually dies within eight years of diagnosis but longer time span lengths of up to twenty years have been noted.

Will a person with Alzheimer's lose his or her memory completely and if so how soon will this change begin to appear?
The onset of memory loss is generally gradual, and th degree of memory loss is variable but is typically very severe in alter stages.

Is there a cure for Alzheimer's disease? If not, how close are researchers to discovering a cure?
There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease despite the amount of research that has been done in recent years. The existing treatments are designed to alleviate symptoms. The treatments available cannot halt the symptoms of Alzehimer's. future treatments may be able to delay the onset or slow progression by protecting nerve cells for a longer period of time. Experts are upbeat that new treatments will, in the not-toodistant future, turn the illness into a manageable chronic condition, similar to diabetes or asthma. But progress comes slowly, and to date, there have been few breakthroughs.

Is there any way to slow the process?
With Alzheimer's disease there is no known cure, so all forms of treatment are only ways to slow the disease process or to simply help the patient deal with the symptoms. medical treatments for Alzheimer's consist of medication such as Donepezil, Tacrine, Rivastigmine, Galantamine, estrogen replacements, calcium regulators, antioxidants, antdepressants, cholinesterase inhibitors and possibley anti-inflammatory drugs. Other techniques can be used to manage the symptoms and slow the process of Alzheimer's such as supporting independence, sensory stimulation and behavior management. Research is now being done on alternatives such as Gingko Biloba, a memory boosting herb, aromatherapy and other alternatives therapies.

Is there any way to prevent Alzheimer's Disease?
Unfortunately, there is no sure way to prevent Alzheimer's, as researcher aren't yet sure what causes it. There have been studies, however, that report Vitamin E, Selegline, and certain anti-oxidants, like Gingko Biloba, may help reduce the chances of developing the disease. major advances and new discoveries bring hope to the furture of finding a prevention strategy. Also, early diagnosis will allow patients to take advantage of the latest advances as soon as they are available.

Are there any other treatments available apart from drugs?
Yes, there are cognitive-oriented, behaviororiented, emotional-oriented and stimulation-oriented approaches to treatment that can be quite helpful.

How does an individual cope with a family member diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and symptoms such as memory loss, wandering and depression?
When dealing with Alzheimer;s disease, one of the most important coping mechanism for the caregiver is having time off. As a caregivers, it will be helpful to you if you continue oto do things that you enjoy. Include other family services so that you are bot always in demand, consider help from friends, religious or social organizations and in-home aids. On eof the newest trends in Alzheimer's care giving is adlut daycare. Not only does daycare provide time off for caregivers byt also they are usually stimulating and provide benefits for the individual with Alzheimer's. Go to the following website for information on living alone, planning legal issues, wandering, and much more.

What can be done to help care for the Alzheimer's patients.
As long as the Alzheimer's patient is able, he or she should be involved in the decisions about treatment, facilities and type of therapy. Alzheimer's patients need reassurance about issues of independence, abandonment and embarrassment. Family caregivers and patients often find support groups helpful in coping effectively.